The Peasant National Museum is one of Romania’s cultural and historical gates of great importance, which tries to highlight without altering or omitting the developing stages of the simplest walk, represented by the Romanian peasant.
The over 90000 objects exposed inside the permanent exhibitions, representing icons, crosses, ceramic objects, canvases, embroideries and costumes, reflect the simple charming and original lifestyle, of the social category that represented an important sustaining pillar for the development of the modern Romanian state.
The history of the institution starts in the year 1906, back then being called The Museum of Ethnography, of National Art, Decorative Art and Industrial Art, so that in the year 1941 it is transferred in a new building which was to become The Museum of the Romanian Peasant.
Erected in the Victory Square, the building representing the Peasant National Museum is the work of the architect N. Ghika–Budesti, overcoming the expectations of the museum’s management of that time, whose ideal was that of creating “a palace of the earthly art”.
The new-Romanian architectural style in which the building was erected remarks itself through mixing the eastern byzantine elements, the local decorative peasant elements, as well as ottoman artistic motives, presenting also a balance in distributing the floral and zoomorphic decorations.
The facades of the building are highlighted by the apparent masonry made out of red bricks, big windows, arched on the upper side, balconies decorated with impressive columns and the architectural symmetry of the bunk body is marked by the tower ascending in the middle of the building, reminding the bell towers of the old monasteries.
The Peasant National Museum changed its name during time, repeatedly, either because it seemed unfit for its specific, or for superficial reasons insinuated by the representatives of the political regime of those times, being known for awhile also under the name of The Carol the 1st National Art Museum.
In the last years of the communist regime, the museum turns into a homage building dedicated to honoring the president Nicolae Ceausescu, the exponents being transferred to the stirbey Palace, where they will be organized into an exposition called “The Popular Art Museum of the Socialist Republic of Romania”. The collections will be again transferred to the warehouses of the Village Museum, so that it later returns to the building in the Victory Square once the regime was changed, at the beginning of 1990.
Besides practicing an unconventional museographic type, fact which brought it in 1996 the prize for the Museum of the Year in Europe, numerous other actions, events, conferences and research activities are manifested by the institution that is the Peasant National Museum.